Notes on the data: Cancer incidence

Cancer incidence by type, male, female and total population, 2010 to 2014

 

Policy context: Cancer is a broad term representing a number of different diseases. Cancer occurs when cells of the body grow and multiply abnormally, becoming dangerous when they spread to surrounding or different areas of the body. Abnormal cell growth can arise from almost any type of tissue cell [1].

Incidence of all types of cancers combined has increased in recent decades, although the rate has declined slightly since 2008 [1]. Over the same period, five-year survival rates have improved and the death rate has declined [2]. In 2019 the estimated number of new cases was 144,713, of which 54.0% were for males and 46.0% for females. The most common cancer for males was prostate cancer, and for females was breast cancer. The next most common cases for both males and females were colorectal (bowel) cancer, melanoma of the skin and lung cancer [1].

Cancer was the leading cause of death in 2016 and remains a major cause of illness [1].

The National Cancer Prevention Policy recommends population measures for reducing the incidence of preventable cancers focusing on prevention, early detection and immunisation. Preventable risk factors include tobacco and alcohol consumption, overweight and obesity, physical inactivity and diet, ultraviolet radiation exposure and occupational hazards. Population-based screening programs in Australia target breast, cervical and bowel cancers. Population-immunisation programs reduce the incidence of cancer-causing infections, namely human papillomavirus (HPV) which is responsible for almost all cervical cancer, and hepatitis B virus (HBV), which is a leading cause of liver cancer [3].

References

  1. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2019. Cancer in Australia 2017. Cancer series no. 119. Cat. no. CAN 123. Canberra: AIHW
  2. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare and Australasian Association of Cancer Registries 2014. Cancer in Australia: in brief 2014. Cancer series no. 91. Cat. no. CAN 89. Canberra: AIHW
  3. Cancer Council Australia. National Cancer Prevention Policy. Last updated 15 April 2015. Available from: http://www.cancer.org.au/policy-and-advocacy/prevention-policy/national-cancer-prevention-policy.html Accessed: 6 Jan 2017
 

Notes:  

To protect confidentiality the following data have been suppressed:

  • all data where there are fewer than five events in an area; however, where there were no cases, zero is shown
  • rates/ratios where there are from five to nine events in an area, though the number itself is shown
  • data for the indicator, All other cancer incidence, where this could consequentially reveal other suppressed data

These data exclude all cases of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin.

There may be slight differences between the data presented and other published data sources due to the data being derived from different base geographies.

Details of data presented

Separate data are presented for the following cancers:

1. Males:

  • Prostate cancer incidence
  • Colorectal cancer incidence
  • Melanoma of the skin incidence
  • Lung cancer incidence
  • Head and neck cancer incidence
  • Lymphoma cancer incidence
  • Leukaemia cancer incidence
  • Bladder cancer incidence
  • Kidney cancer incidence
  • Pancreatic cancer incidence
  • Stomach cancer incidence
  • All other cancer incidence
  • All cancer incidence

2. Females:

  • Breast cancer incidence
  • Colorectal cancer incidence
  • Melanoma of the skin incidence
  • Lung cancer incidence
  • Uterine cancer incidence
  • Lymphoma cancer incidence
  • Thyroid cancer incidence
  • Leukaemia cancer incidence
  • Ovarian cancer incidence
  • Kidney cancer incidence
  • Pancreatic cancer incidence
  • All other cancer incidence
  • All cancer incidence

3. Persons:

  • Colorectal cancer incidence
  • Melanoma of the skin incidence
  • Lung cancer incidence
  • Lymphoma cancer incidence
  • Leukaemia cancer incidence
  • Pancreatic cancer incidence
  • All other cancer incidence
  • All cancer incidence

Additional data about these and other cancers are available from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare website, https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/cancer/cancer-in-australia-2019/contents/table-of-contents

 

Geography: Data available by Population Health Area, Local Government Area, Primary Health Network, quintile of socioeconomic disadvantage of area and Remoteness Areas

 

Numerator: Number of new cases of cancer, by type, among male / female / total population

 

Denominator: Male / female / total population

 

Detail of analysis: Indirectly age-standardised rate per 100,000 population; and/or indirectly age-standardised ratio, based on the Australian standard

 

Source: Compiled by PHIDU from an analysis by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) of the Australian Cancer Database (ACD) 2015. The ACD is compiled at the AIHW from cancer data provided by state and territory cancer registries: for further information on the ACD see https://www.aihw.gov.au/about-our-data/our-data-collections/australian-cancer-database 

 

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